What do we need to know about oral cyst?

What do we need to know about oral cyst?

dental cyst |learn with medstom, A cyst is a cavity that is lined on the inside with epithelium and is filled with liquid or creamy contents.

What are oral cyst?

A cyst is a cavity that is lined on the inside with epithelium and is filled with liquid or creamy contents. They grow slowly and expansively, causing the bone to swell. They most often form in the mouth, jaws, lips, tongue, throat and salivary glands.

They are usually small, painless formations, between 2 and 3 cm. However, when they become inflamed, they turn into abscess cysts - red, swollen and painful. This often requires their surgical removal.

What types of oral cyst do we know?

• Odontogenic

Radicular cyst - is formed by a dental granuloma and is the most common. It is painless and is most often found on X-rays. Even if it is not inflamed, the radicular cyst poses a potential health risk.

Follicular cyst - most often found by accident in X-ray examinations.

Odontogenic keratocyst - in most cases it affects men. It is typical for keratocysts to develop in the lower jaw.

Periodontal cyst - develops as a result of an inflammatory process in the gingival pocket of a vital / living tooth.

Residual cyst - is an irrationally removed radicular cyst, it can also develop from dental granuloma.

• Neodontogenic dental cyst


Globulo-maxillary cyst.


Median cyst of the maxilla (upper jaw).

Median cyst of the mandible (lower jaw).

• Non-fissure, these are cysts of the naso-palatal canal.

What are the symptoms of dental cyst?

Clinical manifestations are determined by the size, location, and type of cyst, and can range from limited swelling, dislocation, and luxation of teeth to complete lysis of the jaw compact.

In the beginning there is a small bone swelling, which with the progress of the process can significantly increase its size and affect neighboring structures such as maxillary sinuses, mandibular nerve and others. Nerve compression can cause numbness in the area.

Cysts that execute have symptoms of an acute inflammatory process. In them, the infection can penetrate through the root canal of a dead tooth or through the bloodstream in common infectious diseases.

To make the correct diagnosis, X-ray diagnosis is extremely important, which shows an oval shadow surrounded by a strong, clear border (called linea albuginea). The type of point is crucial - with the exception of the odontogenic keratocyst, all others have a clear yellowish liquid with cholesterol crystals. A final and correct diagnosis can be made after histological examination of the removed cyst.

The treatment of cysts is surgical - extirpation of the cyst through the alveoli! Extraction of the diseased tooth may be necessary!


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